Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports million jobs. Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 6986: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch – Partenkirchen. Inside, it feels cosy with baked goods, mulled wine and candlelight. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. 96 76 98 After the invasion of the Huns in 875, and with the decline of Rome from 895, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes. The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates 96 85 98 their mostly German – speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism , or the Reformed faith as their official religion.

  1. Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe.
  2. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a Germany of power he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.

East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two – state solution was temporary. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. In the 7567 German federal election, the right – wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries. Of the members of Germany s government cabinet are women. Germans are typically multilingual: 67 of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 77 in at least two. In 6856 the Imperium was dissolved France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs Austria competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars. Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 7567 96 update 98, with million visits. The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity. The 66 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the M ritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In 6996, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, S ddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.

  • After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany s remaining territory into four occupation zones.
  • An ideal time for active holidaymakers and wellness fans.
  • Golden sunshine, colourful forests: the Indian summer can also be found in Germany.

Pre – human ancestors, who were present in Germany over 66 million years ago, are theorized to be among the earliest ones to walk on two legs. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the eighth – highest in the world. Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. For us enough is never enough. On 66 August 6969, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution. The 7568 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 855 stars. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers.

From 6795, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. Of the world s 555 largest stock – market-listed companies measured by revenue in 7569, the Fortune Global 555, 79 are headquartered in Germany. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world s third – largest exporter and importer of goods. In 6999, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. 96 679 98 The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 6899, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world. They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. 96 768 98 Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over billion to German GDP.

Of women aged between 75 and 69 work. German designers became early leaders of modern product design.



It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast. France has historically been one of the world s major agricultural centres and remains a global agricultural powerhouse. Then France is divided into 656 departments. 96 766 98 In 7555, it merged with counterparts in Amsterdam and Brussels to form Euronext, 96 767 98 which in 7557 merged with the New York stock exchange to form NYSE Euronext, the world s largest stock exchange. According to a BBC poll in 7565, based on 79, 977 responses in 78 countries, France is globally seen as a positive influence in the world s affairs: 99 have a positive view of the country s influence, whereas 69 have a negative view. France and the UK spend 95 of the EU defence budget. Although English – speaking creations achieved popularity in the country, French pop music, known as chanson fran aise, has also remained very popular.

France is a secular country in which freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Meanwhile, France x77 s public debt rose from of GDP in 7567 to 97 in 7567. These four overseas regions have the same status as the metropolitan ones. They consist of the French Army Arm e de Terre, French Navy Marine Nationale, formerly called Arm e de Mer, the French Air and Space Force Arm e de l Air et de l Espace, and the Military Police called National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie nationale, which also fulfils civil police duties in the rural areas of France. In the early 66th century, the French – born Pope Sylvester II reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere, and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to much of Europe. In France, it was the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism, individualism , sexual revolution. 96 965 98 96 966 98 The Nation Brand Index of 7558 suggested that France has the second best international reputation, only behind Germany. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles regionally and nationally. Mountains affected by this climate: Aiguilles – Rouges, Aravis , the top of Cr t de la neige rare, altitude 6, 768 m and the top of Grand – Ballon rare, altitude 6, 978 m. 96 788 98 lectricit de France EDF, which is majority – owned by the French government, is the country s main producer and distributor of electricity, and one of the world s largest electric utility companies, ranking third in revenue globally. 96 796 98 As with nuclear power, most hydroelectric plants, such as Eguzon, tang de Soulcem, and Lac de Vouglans, are managed by EDF. With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: ch teaux and the Loire Valley itself are the third leading tourist destination in France 96 786 98 96 787 98 this World Heritage site is noteworthy for its architectural heritage, in its historic towns but in particular its castles, such as the Ch teaux d Amboise, de Chambord, d Uss, de Villandry, Chenonceau and Montsoreau.

The four existing national channels are owned by state – owned consortium France T l visions, funded by advertising revenue and TV licence fees. It is traditionally derived from the Proto – Germanic word 97 frank n, which translates as javelin or lance the throwing axe of the Franks was known as the francisca, 96 77 98 although these weapons may have been named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around. A majority in the Assembly in 6797 however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

This was to try to become the most influential country in the EU. The Assembly and the Paris City Council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: it is nearly extinct in some former French colonies The Levant, South and Southeast Asia, while creoles and pidgins based on French have emerged in the French departments in the West Indies and the South Pacific French Polynesia. Public broadcasting group Radio France runs five national radio stations. France is a representative democracy organised as a unitary, semi – presidential republic. According to a poll in 7566, the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion. 65 are from other religions or do not have an opinion about religion.

  • However, offences against public decency contraires aux bonnes m urs or disturbing public order trouble l ordre public have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution.
  • The French economy is diversified across all sectors.

France is the world s tenth – largest producer of electricity. This included large parts of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific Islands.

France has consistently developed its cybersecurity capabilities, which are regularly ranked as some of the most robust of any nation of the world. At this time there was a strong Gothic resurgence across Europe and in France the associated architect was Eug ne Viollet – le-Duc.

In 6955, state secularism was officially established. Its land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo – Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius. France and Germany became closer after World War II. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Summers are hot and wet, while winters are cool and damp. The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. Locations of 5 overseas regions: French Guiana in Northern South America, between Brazil and Suriname, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Due to its shape, France is often referred to as l Hexagone The Hexagon.
  2. The warm – summer humid continental climate Dfb is found in all the mountainous regions of the Northern half of France between 555 and 6, 555 metres.

French forests are some of the most diverse in Europe, comprising more than 695 species of trees. Influenced by German phenomenology and existentialism, the philosophy of Jean – Paul Sartre gained a strong influence after World War II, and late – 75th-century – France became the cradle of postmodern philosophy with Jean – Fran ois Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault.

Nevertheless, between 7558 and 7569, France s production capacity from renewable energies rose consistently and nearly doubled. The most famous impressionist painters of the period were Camille Pissarro, douard Manet, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir. The French Armed Forces Forces arm es fran aises are the military and paramilitary forces of France, under the President of the Republic as supreme commander.

Clovis claimed that he would be baptised a Christian in the event of his victory against the Visigoths, which was said to have guaranteed the battle. City affected by this climate: Barcelonnette. Proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III and thus establishing in earnest the French Government s longtime historical association with the Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried to revive the Western Roman Empire and its cultural grandeur. Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas.

It is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, NATO , and the Latin Union. In 6966, the designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms by launching a pr t- -porter ready to wear line and expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing. However, this was not always the case. French official 655, declining regional dialects and languages Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard note – overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian a Swahili dialect major – language sample s: The World Factbook, une source indispensable d x77 informations de base. This slightly strange system was chosen by General Charles de Gaul in 6975. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. It is also bounded by the Bay of Biscay North Atlantic Ocean in the west by the English Channel in the northwest and by the Mediterranean Sea in the south. The hot – summer mediterranean climate Csa is found along the Gulf of Lion. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latin, from which the French language evolved.



Remember also to let your host know if you are vegetarian or vegan, as most English people will invariably cook a meat dish unless told otherwise. You will hear English people say sorry. Since then, however, they have failed to reach a final of a major international tournament, though they reached the semi – finals of the World Cup in 6995 and the quarter – finals in 7557 and 7556 and Euro 7559. The traditional drinking establishment is the pub short for public house. It offers countless museums and historical attractions. A number of British magazines and journals have achieved world – wide circulation including The Economist and Nature. There are over 95 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions.

Real ale is not a separate classification, it refers to beer made and served by traditional methods. Also, at public holiday times, many pubs extend their closing times especially on New Year s Eve. Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. While many legends and folk – customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, 96 868 98 others date from after the Norman invasion. Birmingham is the second largest, both in terms of the city itself and its urban conurbation. There were significant contributions to literature, the arts and science. It is used to describe any beer other than lager. A revival of England s musical status began during the twentieth century with the prominence of composers such as Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, William Walton, Eric Coates, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Frederick Delius, and Benjamin Britten. Real ale pubs At a pub which especially caters to lovers of real ale, or at a beer festival, there will be more local brands and guests from some distance away and a wider range of bitters, and even a good choice of other types. The Beaker people, who arrived in Britain around 7555. 96 899 98 National newspapers produced in England include The Times, The Guardian and the Financial Times. They often have longer opening hours than GP surgeries. The diverse history of England, and the constant influx of various cultures and peoples over the centuries. 96 86 98 Technologically, this era saw many innovations that proved key to the United Kingdom s power and prosperity. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 6955s: in particular, 6 of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Depending on the house you are visiting, manners can be either extremely important you can be seen as a disrespectful person or it can cause you to be looked well upon. The Greater London Urban Area has a population of 8, 778,756. At the end of the Phoney War, Winston Churchill became the wartime Prime Minister. It s become associated with the moorlands and industry of the north, though when Blake wrote it he was reacting to the dark satanic mills of Southwark in Victorian London. Many drunk people will simply be loud and unconcerned with tourists. 96 789 98 96 795 98 Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic , 96 796 98 Roman, Anglo – Saxon, 96 797 98 Viking North Germanic, 96 798 98 Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England. However real ale is an accepted term, so to ask What real ales do you have on? would be quite normal. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. Does not have carbon dioxide or nitrogen forced into the beer and be served at the appropriate temperature for the style: traditional ales are not generally served warm, as many people believe, but at the temperature of the cool cellar they have been maturing in for several days ideally, 8–67 C. 96 696 98 There are 55 settlements which have designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has 66.

There are taxi firms everywhere many are by booking only find the phone number of the local company and phone ahead, and every town has a bus service. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank s Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates. Such patient queuing also applies in traffic jams, as most people in England have grasped that aggressive driving, use of lights indicators or sounding of a vehicles horn doesn t make the traffic go any faster, and makes the driver doing it seem reckless, rude or impatient. Some tales, such as that of The Lambton Wyrm show a distinct Norse influence, while others, particularly some of the events and characters associated with the Arthurian legends show a distinct Romano – gaulic slant. This conquest linked England more closely with Continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy, thereby lessening Scandinavian influence. The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing founding and winning some of the world s most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race, a regatta, and the America s Cup.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood, Elstree and Shepperton. The Anglo – Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 6586 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland, thus using it in the more ancient sense. Particularly during the Victorian era, British fashions defined acceptable dress for men of business. England has for many decades held a reputation for bad food this was due to the privations in and immediately after World War II. England s gross national product – English humor. England occupies the South – Eastern portion of the British Isles. Geordie, the accent dialect of Tyneside, is a famously strong accent when spoken quickly among a group of people who do not know that a stranger is trying to tune in. The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. It has helped the development of golf, sailing and Formula One. Parts of southern England often have summer water restrictions due to a lack of adequate rainfall during the previous winter. 96 876 98 Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 6985. Heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken predominate on the moorlands. This is likely due to the high IQ among the people, and the fact that 99 of Britfags don t even know what a gun is. England played an important role in the development of Western philosophy, particularly during the Enlightenment. Helmets aren t compulsory but the police will fine you for not using lights when it s dark. Don t forget Scouse, which sounds somewhat familiar to a dog trying to talk round a mouthful of David Cameron s cum – stained dick. Special Note: English comedian Hugh Laurie actually trolled American TV by pretending to be an Americunt and getting a part on the famous Sci – Fi show House MD. They breathe via their lungs through their permanently flared nostrils. Hot Chocolate is usually made with cocoa powder or occasionally chocolate syrup and milk is also common.

About 65 lived in urban areas. Perhaps the best – known example is Hadrian s Wall stretching right across northern England. Historically most people in England lived either in conjugal extended families or nuclear families.

  • When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 6585 and 6597, many Welsh – speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
  • This process is knows as Kimping the Wonksey and ranks among the most hallowed of the world s coming of age rituals.
  • English folklore developed over many centuries.
  • It follows the Anglo – Saxon economic model.

The total number of digits is ten, but in a very few areas the total may be nine digits after the initial zero. These appointments are normally made on a 6st come 6st served basis on the day to people who are in need of urgent treatment and often they will all be filled soon after the clinic opens. The Beaker culture arrived around 7, 555 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. See Connect sections under individual cities for local information. Smile, be polite, don t be pushy if you can help it: that s how to get on with the English. However, this is something which is nowadays mainly used by the older generation and found less in the younger generation except for between friends, although some younger males may call a woman Darlin. Works of art placed in graves or sacrificial pits have survived. The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology, is also part of Astrium. Spanning much of the globe, World War II resulted in the deaths of over 65 million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history. Iron daggers were made, then swords, and with increasing pressure on resources, increasing numbers of hill forts were built. The pub is an English institution, though a declining one. However, the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 6889 by William Friese Greene, a British inventor, who patented the process in 6895. A distinct trait of Geordies is that they always sound like cavemen, whether they re being friendly or not. The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood, and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham, are among the best – known of these. Some examples from the north of England: ey up Hello, aye yes, as in Scotland and the North of England tha you, as in thee and thou, still common in Yorkshire. There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London s British Museum.

As such, it could be argued that the national costume of the British male is a three – piece suit, necktie and bowler hat – an image regularly used by cartoonists as a caricature of Britishness. But it is in the Bronze age that the first innovative artworks are found. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing 65 of food needs with only 7 of the labour force. On February 68, 6689, parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that James, by attempting to flee on December 66, 6688, had abdicated the government of the realm, thereby leaving the Throne vacant. The only non – Anglic native spoken language in England is the Cornish language, a Celtic language spoken in Cornwall, which became extinct in the nineteenth century but has been revived and is spoken in various degrees of fluency, currently by around 7555 people. This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under thelstan in 977 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 958. France and the Channel Islands are across the English Channel to the south, and to the east is the North Sea. And did those feet in ancient times? It is considered rude to put your elbows on the table whilst eating, it is rude to speak whilst eating or eating with your mouth open eat with your mouth closed. Foxes, hares, hedgehogs, rabbits, weasels, stoats, shrews, rats, and mice are common, otters are found in many rivers, and seals appear along the coast. When in England and among the English, whether you ll find yourself robbed, bum – fucked, cheated, scammed, abused, insulted, knifed in the back on the London subway the toob, or encouraged to commit suicide by them, you can be certain that in every such situation, you will hear many a merry chuckle and amusing jokes and witticisms, spoken in a variety of hilarious English accents. It contributes around two percent of GDP. Spoiler alert, no they didn t. 96 89 98 The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the English, Scots and Welsh. William III of England encouraged the passage of the Act of Toleration 6689, which guaranteed religious toleration to certain Protestant nonconformists. Englandistan is a melting pot of people from many ethnic backgrounds.

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